It developed a created and unprecedented urban planning process and was ruled by the first Ottoman sultans with its innovative and master system.Cores, which provide all kinds of public infrastructure services, namely, social complexes, were formed before forming neighbourhoods to use semi religious Ahi brotherhood organizations and to utilize the system for the benefit of the public in the best possible way. These social complexes had a great role in the trade of the Ottoman Empire, which was one of the fastest growing empires in the world. This important role and being the capital city of the Ottoman Empire reflected as large commercial buildings, covered bazaar and markets in the Large Commercial Buildings Area. This area was the center of economic activities in the city since when it was founded in the 14th Century. Since the area preserved its aesthetic and social value and pedestrianized, it is an attractive public place for both tourists and the residents of the city. Large commercial buildings and markets continue their activities uninterruptedly since they were founded 700 years ago.
Large Commercial Building Area’’ consists of three main types of commercial buildings. The first one of these is ‘’Large Commercial Buildings.’’ Large Commercial Buildings have been used for both commerce and lodging (market and guesthouse). Large commercial buildings are usually two or three story buildings, designed with a square or rectangular plan (Most of the Large commercial buildings in Bursa have two stories), and there are water tanks with a fountain, sometimes under a small mosque, in the middle of these buildings, built around a large courtyard. While the second story of the large commercial buildings were usually used for lodging, especially for the lodging of wholesalers and foreign tradesmen, the first floor was used as a storage. However, the lower stories were used for retail sales in some cases. Large commercial buildings had a great importance for the development of commercial activities of the city of Bursa, in which they are located.
When Sultan Osman died in Sogut, he was buried in his father Ertugrul’s tomb. After Bursa was captured by the Turks, his body was brought to Bursa and buried in Saint Elia (Gumuslu Kumbet) Church, which belongs to the byzantine period. Although he was buried under the same roof with sultan Orhan at the beginning, when the tomb was destroyed during 1855 earthquake, Sultan Abdulaziz had the tomb, which can be seen today, rebuilt. There is repair inscription of poet Nevres, written by calligraphist Mehmet Zeki Dede (1821-1881) dated 1863. The tomb with an octagonal plan and thick walls is covered by a dome. Walls of the tomb, made of cut limestone, is 1.20 m thick. There is a window with a round arch on all sides of the tomb other than its entrance door. There are seventeen sarcophagi in the tomb, seven of which are in the front and ten in the back. Extremely ostentatious sarcophagus of Sultan Osman, surrounded by brass rail is in the middle of the tomb. There are also sarcophagi, belonging to Savci Bey (1362-1385), son of Sultan Murad I, Aladdin Pasha (d.1337), Sultan Osman’s son Ibrahim (1317-1359), Sultan Orhan’s wife Asburce Hatun and sultans.
Social complexes are focal points, which comprise core of cities on a whole city scale and residential areas develop around. Orhan Gazi Social complex, Hudavendigar Social complexes, Yildirim Social complex, Yesil Social complex, Muradiye Social complex are UNESCO Heritage Social complexes. The first few houses and then the houses, which follow these houses were built around the social complexes, according to the position of the mosque and madrasa in a social complex. Residential settlement Social complexes was encouraged through tax deduction by the state. Social complexes are buildings, which do not change and remain stable and situated in the most select locations as a symbol of the religious faith and power of sultans but the residential areas around them were subject to change and temporary in privacy phenomenon, depending on the wishes of their owners and topographical conditions and the materials used.
Surviving to the present day as one of the most imposing village settlements of Ottoman rural architecture, Cumalikizik, is a 700 year old dedicated village, established in the southern foothills of Uludag. According to Orhan deed of trust of a pious foundation Kizik villages were dedicated for alms house. Kizik is one of 24 Oghuz tribes. When Sultan Orhan, who beat the feudal landlords of Bursa region in 1303, conquered Kestel, the region was open for Turkmens. Cumalikizik is an important cultural heritage, shaped according to traditional Ottoman architecture and houses, which are examples of original civilian architecture, are integrated with the organic street structure and monumental structures. Villages, which were squeezed between the foothills of Uludag and the valleys were named “kizik” in the Ottoman period. It is said that since those, who live in other kizik villages, gather for Friday prayer there, the village is called Cumalikizik. Only Cumalikizik, Hamamlikizik, Derekizik, Degirmenlikızık and Fidyekizik survived to the present day. However, the ones, other than Cumalikizik were not able to preserve their original structure.
Founded on an approximately 10 hectare area, 60 per cent of about 270 houses in Cumalikizik Village are still inhabited. Number of registered buildings is 133. Two of these are monumental buildings (mosque and baths) and 128 of them are buildings, which are examples of civil architecture. In addition, there are two monumental sycamore trees, which have been registered and a fountain to the east of the mosque. The center, consisting of a mosque, village coffee house and great sycamore tree trilogy, observed in traditional Ottoman settlements, can also be seen in Cumalikizik. The buildings, which comprise the organic street structure, shaped according to topography, have been designed according to characteristic features of the region. Therefore, very example of civil architecture is different than the others. This variation has made the structure of the village richer.