Mentioned in the Iliad, which is one of the two poetical sagas, believed to be written by Homeros, ancient city of Troy, where the Trojan War took place, has 9 layers, which show more than 3000 years of time without interruption and allows us to track the civilizations, which settled in this unique region, where Anatolia, the Aegean and the Balkans meet. Troy is one of the most famous ancient cities in the world. 9 layers, visible in Troy, show more than 3000 years of time without interruption and allows us to track the civilizations, which settled in this unique region, where Anatolia, the Aegean and the Balkans meet. The earliest layer of settlement in Troy dates back to 3000 - 2500 B.C. and the Early Bronze Age and then the layers of Troy, which exhibit continuous settlement end with the Roman period, which dates back to 85 B.C. – 8th Century A.D.
The name, Troy, which has different spelling and pronunciation in different languages, is called ‘’Troya’’ in Turkish and due to its pronunciation in French, is also known as ‘’Truva’’ from the 19th Century onwards. Both Troia and Ilios was used for the same place in Homer’s Iliad. The name Troia is mentioned 49 times and Ilios is mentioned 106 times in the Iliad. ‘’Holy Ilios’’ description is encountered frequently. Troia, which is used less, is mentioned with ‘’surrounded by strong walls’’, ‘’with strong towers,’’ ‘’with wide streets’’, ‘’windy’’ descriptions. Both names, used for the city, go back far before Homer’s time. The saga was told since the ancient times and reached Homer.
Aftering having read and examined the Iliad many times, Heinrich Schliemann believed that the Troy, told by Homer, namely the city of Ilios, should have been searched at Hisarlık Hill, at dimensions of 100x250 meters, to the south of Çanakkale Strait (Hellespont). This archaeological site is approximately 6 km from the Aegean coast and 4.5 km from the shore of Çanakkale Strait at a strategically important point at the edge of a limestone ridge, extending between Scamander (Karamenderes) and Simoeis (Dümrek) valleys. Frank Calvert (Consul, a scientist, who knows the region well and a relic collector), who conducted minor excavations at Troy between 1863-1865, had realized that Hisarlık Hill was a tumulus before. It is possible to examine Troy, which was destroyed nine times due to natural disasters and wars throughout history, in nine layers.
Troy VIII. Vestiges, found in this layer do not date back to a period, earlier than 7th Century B.C. This shows that the city was abandoned for a long time. The most important remains of buildings at this layer belong to the temple of Athena. Troy IX. This is the layer, belonging to the Roman period. Since Romans, considered themselves to descend from the Aeneas from Troy, they placed a special importance for Troy. The city was built-up especially during the reign of Caesar and Augustus. Temple of Athena was expanded and enlarged with additional buildings. The temple was surrounded by rows of columns, which were 80 m in length, on four sides. Stones of Troy VI and Troy VII layers were dismantled in order to do this. In the mean time, the city was decorated with buildings, such as bouleuterion and theater.
King of Achaians, Odysseus makes a genius plan when he cannot capture the city. He has a large wooden horse prepared and hides his most elite soldiers in it. After that, they act like they retreat and set sail and get away. Trojans, who were surprised about this retreat and wooden horse, go near the horse. This horse was given to the Trojans as a war present. Trojans became and happy and take the horse inside the castle. Achaian warriors, which wait inside the horse capture a part of the castle in a short time because they fight against soldiers, who celebrate victory and become tired when the enemy retreated. I the mean time, the other troops, who acted like they got in the ships and got away are let inside the castle too and the city of Troy is destroyed and burnt. Menelaos takes his wife Helen and goes back to his country.