Encompassing layers, belonging to Hellenistic, Roman, East Roman and Ottoman Periods, Bergama Multi Layered Cultural Landscape Area consists of 9 components, which are Pergamum (multi layered city), Sanctuary of Cybele, Ilyas Tepe, Yigma Tepe, Ikili, Tavsan Tepe, X Tepe, A Tepe and Maltepe Tumulus.
Pergamum settlement on top of Kale Mountain represents the best example of Hellenistic period urban planning.Temple of Athena, Temple of Trajan, the steepest theatre of the Hellenistic period, library, Heroon, Altar of Zeus, Dionysus Temple, agora and gymnasium buildings are the most select examples of this planning system and the architecture of the period. The city, which was the capital city of Hellenistic Pergamum Kingdom, was an important education center. Pergamum, which became the capital of Asian Provinces of the Roman Empire later, hosted Asclepeion, which was one of the most important health centers of the period. Pergamum represents the most magnificent example of Hellenistic Period urban planning with its monumental architecture, practiced by utilizing the topography of the area in the best possible way. Temple of Athena, Temple of Trajan, the steepest theater of the Hellenistic period, library, Heroon, Altar of Zeus, Dionysos Temple, agora and gymnasium buildings are the most select examples of this planning system and the architecture of the period. The city, which has one of the most famous and distinguished sculpture schools of the Hellenistic Period, created the altar of Zeus in the IInd Century B.C., which is currently considered among the wonders of the world. Altar of Zeus and many other works, made by Pagamum Sculpture School, represent the climax of the art of sculpture during the Hellenistic Period. The name, ‘’parchment,’’ we still use today, comes from Pergamum. Consisting of 200 thousand rolls and having one of the most important libraries of the Hellenistic Age, the city was also a center of science and art.
People of Pergamum, who take the water 200 meters above, to the acropolis of Pergamum via pressured water system in the Hellenistic Period, carried water to the city through water systems, one of which was 45 km and the other 70-80 km long during the Roman period. Continued its role as a pioneer in cultural and scientific life during the Roman Period, the city became one of the important metropolis in the ancient world with its population, which reached 160 thousand. The temple, built in dedication to the Egyptian gods and known as Kizil avlu, stands as an imposing building in the middle of the city. It has a special place due to many of its features, such as the area it coves, having been built on a river, having been used as a church during the Byzantine period and one of its towers being used as a mosque today. In addition to the Kizil Avlu, it has the most important examples of architecture, planning and engineering of its period with outstanding monuments of its period, such as the Temple of Trajan, Theater, Amphitheater and aqueducts. Many monumental buildings, belonging to the Roman period, still stand in the Ottoman Period urban texture today as an important part of multi layered cultural landscape. Bridges, which belong to the Roman Period and are still used today are the only passing points, which connect the neighborhoods on both sides of Selinos stream. One of the first seven churches of Christianity in Western Anatolia being in Bergama means that the city was important in the Byzantine Period as well. Encompassing many exceptional examples, belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods with the cultural landscape around them, the city maintained its importance with many residences, mosques, inns, baths and commercial centers, which belong to the Ottoman period architecture and extending over the layers, belonging to the Roman and East Roman (Byzantine) periods.
Life in Bergama currently continues on settlement, public and commercial axes, which were shaped during the Ottoman Empire period and still maintaining their liveliness. It is possible to see masters, who are engaged in traditional Turkish metal embroidery called “tel kırma” and Bergama comforters side by side in the Ottoman Bazaar. The city, which was famous for the feasts and sports activities it hosted in the Antiquity, cultural life is still active and lively today. Hosting the oldest festival of our republic every year, which was started by request of Ataturk and continuing uninterruptedly, `'Bergama Charity Bazaar”, Bergama is also famous for its musicians, weddings and village charities. Encompassing many exceptional examples, belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods with the cultural landscape around them, the city maintained its importance with many residences, mosques, inns, baths and commercial centers, which belong to the Ottoman period architecture and extending over the layers, belonging to the Roman and East Roman (Byzantine) periods.